What you will learn:
- How to help clients using the ACE IFT Model.
- Why trainers should work on health first, then fitness and at last performance.
- How to help clients gain positive experiences leading to adherence.
ACE IFT: shows trainer how to develop exercises to impact behavioral change, posture, movement, flexibility, balance, core function, cardiorespiratory functions, muscle endurance and strength,
Health – Fitness Performance Continuum
- Exercise programs should do the following
- Improve Health
- Develop and advance Fitness
- Enhance Performance
- Sedentary clients will spend up to 4-6 weeks improving health in the conditioning stage.
Introduction to the ACE IFT Training Model
- Rapport is the foundation for all stages.
- Should be developed through the early communication stages with positive experiences with exercise then enhanced through behavioral strategies for long term exercise adherence.
- Personal trainers should work on obtaining physiological measurements such as resting heart rate and blood pressure.
- Conduct assessment on functional movement, balance and range of motion (ROM)
- ACE IFT organized the research into a system that helps trainers asses their clients effectively
- ACE IFT has 2 primary components
- Functions Movements and Resistance training
- Cardiorespiratory Training
Rapport and Behavioral Strategies
- The greatest impact a personal trainer can have on a clients is to help change their habits and establish a positive relationship with exercise.
- Rapport is at the core of it all
- Personal trainer can have an immediate impact by first creating a positive exercise experience which can lead to program adherence.
- Steps to facilitate behavioral change
- Enhance rapport
- Identify clients stage of behavior change
- Create a positive experience in the initial meetings
- Proper assessment timing
- Create programs and supervise workouts
- Help clients realize that change of lifestyle is a positive thing
- Prevent relapses
- Help clients to move from extrinsic motivation to intrinsic motivation.
- Work with adapting to the client’s personality
- Set a short and long term goal that is easily attainable
- Help them get to the action and maintenance stages
- Provide extrinsic motivation
- Prevent overtraining
- Help clients gain self-efficacy to train on their own
- Help clients make exercise a long term habit
- After 2-4 weeks of regular exercise, clients start to experience:
- Changes in hormones and neurotransmitter levels
- Endorphins, serotonin and norepinephrine
- Increase self-efficacy and short term goals accomplishments
- Improved performance
- Changes in hormones and neurotransmitter levels
- Personal trainer should make exercise fun first with focus on program adherence
- Once a client is adhering then focus on goals like weight loss or change in body composition.
Training Components and Phases
- Understanding of the ACE IFT phases and training is important to determine client levels.
- Clients muscle imbalances, postural issues, and improper movement mechanics should all be addressed in Phase 1, mobility-training phase
Functional Movements and Resistance Training
- Posture is the core of human movement
- Phase 1: assessment and training for joint stability and movement
- Phase 2: movement training (squatting, bending, pushing, pulling)
- Phase 3: external resistance and loads
- Phase 4: performance training
- These phases are based on principles of specificity overload and progression
Phase 1: Stability and Mobility Training
- Low-intensity training to improve balance, endurance, flexibility and posture.
- Exercises to stabilize the spine and center of gravity (COG).
- Initial assessments include:
- Range of Motion (ROM)- ankle, hip, shoulder complex and thoracic and lumbar spine.
- Principle goal is to develop the postural stability without compromising mobility.
- Exercises limitations – stable supported surfaces against gravity (floors and backrests)
- Main focus should be on:
- Restorative flexibility
- Isometric contractions
- Limited ROM strengthening
- Static balance
- Core activation
- Spiral stabilization
- Muscular endurance
Phase 2: Movement training
- 5 primary movements
- Bend and lift (squatting) – lifting objects off the floor.
- Single-leg (lunging) critical part of walking
- Pushing (push-ups) 4 different directions
- Forward- pushing a door
- Overhead – putting something on a shelf above
- Lateral – sliding a door open
- Downward – getting up from a chair
- Pulling (pull-ups) opening a car door
- Rotating (spiral) moving things from left to right or vice versa
- The warm up should include dynamic balance exercises
- Resistance training should include exercises that build muscle endurance and promote mobility
- Emphasis also on controlled ROM and deceleration by eccentric muscle actions.
Phase 3: Load training
- Emphasis placed on muscle force productions
- Goals include:
- Changes in body composition
- Muscular strength
- Muscle hypertrophy or endurance
- Looking toned
- FITT Model (Frequency, Intensity, Time and Type)
- Used to increase muscular hypertrophy and strength
- Exercise selection for this stage is focused on isolated or single joint movements and should transition into full body movements.
- Many clients will stay in this phase for many years.
- If clients want to move to Phase 4 they should develop strength for power, speed, agility and quickness.
Phase 4: Performance Training
- The goal of this phase is to improve speed, agility, quickness, reactivity and power.
- Power training increases velocity of force production by improving muscles ability to generate a lot of force in a short time.
- Power defined as velocity of force production and rate of performing work.
- Exercise selection for this stage
- Plyometrics jump training
- Medicine ball throws
- Kettlebell lifts
- Olympic Lifts
- During load training (P3) the focus was to improve muscle motor unit recruitment.
- Power raining is to increase rate coding.
- Speed of motor units stimulating muscles to contract and produce force.
- Maximize the stretch flex by minimizing the time duration between eccentric and concentric muscle action.
- The faster it is the greater the force.
- Power training integrated full body exercises
- Power training develops lean muscle, type II muscle fibers.
- Personal trainers should focus on steady state training to improve cardiorespiratory fitness.
- High-low intensity training intervals at or near the lactate threshold.
Phase 1: Aerobic-base training
- Personal trainers should help sedentary clients develop a base to improve health, endurance, energy, mood and caloric expenditure.
- Talk-test method: if a client can perform an exercise and talk comfortably in sentences.
- If yes, then client is below the first ventilatory threshold (VT1)
- Ratings for perceived exertion (RPE) of 3-4 (based on a scale of 0-10)
- basically the amount of energy you exert is given a number.
- The goal here is to help the clients do cardiorespiratory exercises 3-5 days per week for 20-30 minutes at an RPE of 3-4
- This will also help the clients with improvements in activities of daily living (ADL)
Phase 2: Aerobic-efficiency Training
- The goal here is to improve aerobic endurance by increasing the intensity of exercises performed.
- They should be at or above VT1 with an RPE of 4-5 (strong).
Phase 3: Anaerobic-endurance Training
- The primary focus is on improving performance in endurance events or train fitness enthusiasts for higher cardiorespiratory fitness.
- The lactate threshold or tolerance training if performed at or near the second ventilatory threshold (VT2)
- ACE IFT Model uses a 3-zone model for cardiorespiratory training.
- Zone 1- (at or under VT1) (RPE=3-4) warm up, cool down, and long distance endurance workouts.
- Zone 2- (between VT1 and VT2) (RPE=5) 1-2 cardiorespiratory workouts per week. Working on aerobic efficiency.
- Zone 3- (at or greater than VT2) (RPE=6-7) 1-2 days cardiorespiratory workouts per week. Working on anaerobic efficiency
- Personal Trainers should explain that more training is not always better. Recovery is crucial in completing workouts and adherence.
Phase 4: Anaerobic-power training
- The main focus is on building upon the previous training phases and introducing new intervals to enhance anaerobic power.
- New intervals to develop peak power and aerobic capacity to be performed by the client.
- These exercise routines are performed above VT2 with an RPE greater than 9. (very,very strong)
- These intervals overload fast glycolytic system and challenge phosphagen system.
- These intervals are short in duration and high in intensity.
- Clients training in this phase are usually getting ready for competition
- 3-7 days per week. 20 min to several hours per session.
Special Population Clientele
- Use ACE IFT model to adjust the following according to the clientele you train.
- Exercise selection